Russian writer Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky was born on this day: He hated mathematics, escaped being shot and married a widow

Photo: Profimedia

On this day, in 1821, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, one of the main characters in Russian literature, was born. Dostoevsky is a central figure of literary realism in the 19th century, and not only in Russia.

His mother died of tuberculosis and his father was a violent alcoholic

Dostoevsky was born in Moscow on November 11, 1821. He was the second of seven children of Mikhail and Maria Dostoevsky. He received his secondary education in a private boarding school in Moscow. Soon after his mother died of tuberculosis in 1837, he and his brother Mikhail were sent to the military academy in St. Petersburg. In 1839, his father, a retired military surgeon and violent alcoholic who worked at the Marinsk Hospital for the Poor, in Moscow, also died. It is assumed that Michael was killed by his serfs, who are known to have been outraged by his drunken behavior on several occasions. It is believed that they killed him by tying him up and pouring vodka into his mouth until he drowned. According to another story, Michael died of natural causes, and the explanation for his violent death was invented by a neighboring landowner, in order to buy his property more easily.

Photo: Profimedia

Mathematics did not suit him, so he devoted himself to literature

Fyodor did not do very well at the St. Petersburg Military Academy because he was bad at math, which he hated. Instead, he devoted himself to literature. Then, he highly appreciated Honore de Balzac and in 1843 he even translated one of his greatest works "Eugénie Grande" into Russian. In the same year, his brother Mikhail received permission to publish the magazine "Epoha", in which Dostoevsky also published. However, in 1841, he was promoted to the rank of officer, and in 1843 he graduated from the academy and entered the service.

From an ideological point of view, Dostoevsky was formed under the influence of the socialist-utopians and was a member of Belinsky's circles, as well as a member of the left wing of the so-called "Petrashevskys" (in 1847 he started attending meetings with Petrashevsky), the so-called is. part of the revolutionary circle of N. A. Speshnev and Durov. After the illegal reading of Belinsky's Letters to Gogol, Dostoevsky was arrested and imprisoned on April 23, 1849, on charges of having participated in revolutionary activities against Tsar Nicholas I. On November 16 of the same year, he was sentenced to death for acting against the government in an assembly of the intellectual circle, the so-called "Petraševski circle", together with other leading members of the circle.

Photo: Profimedia

He got scared from shooting and married a widow

After the mock shooting, on December 22, 1849, when he was blindfolded and left to wait in the cold, Dostoevsky was pardoned and in January 1850 he was sent to forced labor in the Katorga labor camp in Omsk, Siberia. During this period, he was affected by numerous epileptic seizures, for which he had genetic predispositions. In 1854 he was released from prison and spent the next five years as a lieutenant in the 1859th Battalion, stationed at the fortress of Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. In XNUMX, Dostoevsky went to Tver, and then to Petrograd.

This period is considered a turning point in his life. Dostoevsky had already abandoned revolutionary political views and returned to traditional Russian values. He became a Christian and a great opponent of the philosophy of nihilism. At that time, he met Maria Dimitrievna Iseava, the widow of a friend from Siberia, whom he later married.

He wrote novels and was a magazine editor

In 1846, Dostoevsky's first novel appeared (written in the form of an epistolary drama), "Wretched People", which received excellent criticism, and the critic Vissarion Belinsky made the following statement: "The new Gogol was born!". In the same year, his brother Mikhail received permission to publish the magazine "Epoha", in which Dostoevsky also published.

Dostoevsky's last novel is "The Brothers Karamazov", published in sequels, in the magazine "Ruski Vesnik", during 1879 and 1880. According to Dostoevsky's idea, the novel was supposed to be the first part of the epic in which he intended to express his "main idea", as he expressed it in a letter. Originally, that novel was to be called Atheism, but later the title was changed to The Life of a Great Sinner. That imagined novel was to be Dostoevsky's life's work.

In addition to literature, Dostoevsky also engaged in journalistic work. Thus, from 1861 to 1863, together with his brother Mikhail Mikhailovich, he published the magazine "Vreme", from 1864 to 1865 he edited the magazine "Epoha", which he founded himself, and in the period 1873-1874 he was the editor of the reactionary magazine "Citizen". Also, in the last decade of his life, he started publishing the "Writer's Diary" in which he commented on various events that were happening in Russia and the world.

He lost his brother and had big problems with mosquitoes

In 1860, Dostoevsky returned to St. Petersburg, where with his brother Mikhail, he started publishing the literary magazines "Vreme" and "Epokha", but without success. Dostoevsky was deeply shaken by the death of his wife in 1864 and, immediately afterwards, by the death of his brother. During this period, he was in poor financial condition and had to support his brother's widow and children. From there, he sank completely into depression, often lost money to a mosquito and went into debt.

Photo: Profimedia

Dostoevsky had big problems with the mosquito. One of his most famous works, Crime and Punishment, was written in record time and quickly published, so that he could pay off his debts, and when he did, he ran out of money again. At the same time, Dostoevsky also wrote the book "The Gambler" to fulfill the contract with his publishers.

Dostoevsky also traveled to Western Europe. There, he first tried to renew his love relationship with Apollinara Suslova, a young student, but she refused to marry him. Once again his heart was broken, but he soon met Anna Gregorevna, a twenty-year-old stenographer, whom he married in 1867. From 1873 to 1881, he published, this time successfully, a monthly literary magazine with short articles and cartoons from current events. The magazine was a great success.

40.000 people attended his funeral

Before the end of his life, Dostoevsky lived in the city of Stara Rusa (near St. Petersburg). He died on February 9, 1881 of lung problems caused by his epileptic seizures. He was buried at the "Tikhvin" cemetery in the "Alexander Nevsky" monastery in St. Petersburg. His body was carried to the cemetery by a large crowd (an estimated 40.000 people attended his funeral).

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