On this day - September 9
1087.- The English King William I died, called William the Conqueror, who was a Norman duke before coming to the throne in 1066. He is the first Norman king of England, the creator of English feudalism. As an English monarch, he confiscated the property of the Anglo-Saxon nobility. This conquest marked the beginning of a new era in the history of England.
1513.- King James IV of Scotland was killed in the battle against the English at Fludena, after the invasion of Northumberland. In the battle, his forces suffered a huge defeat. He ascended the throne in 1488, succeeding his father James III, who was killed by rebels. He soon tamed the rebels on the ground and provided internal stability, and strengthened the monarchy. For him, the resumption of hostility with the English, which culminated in the invasion of Northumberland, was fatal.
1585.- French statesman Cardinal Richelle was born, who, as almighty foreign and military minister, set a goal for King Louis XIII to make France the number one power in Europe. Building an absolutist monarchy limited the influence of the church, the pope, and the nobility. He suppressed the Huguenot uprising and deprived them of political rights, but left them religious freedom. He plunged the country into the Thirty Years' War in order to weaken the power of the German Empire (Habsburg). During the religious war, France, although a Catholic country, fought on the side of the Protestants. It continued the colonial expansion of France and began colonizing North America (Quebec). Assisted in the development of agriculture, trade and education. In 1635 he founded the French Academy.
1737.- Luigi Galvani, an Italian physicist, was born. He was the first professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna to discover galvanic electricity. According to him, they are called direct currents and a number of electrical processes and procedures. He died in 1798.
1776.- The official name of the United States of America was introduced instead of the United Colonies, which was in use until then.
1828.- Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy, a Russian writer, unsurpassed short story writer, novelist, playwright and social reformer, was born in Jasna Poljana. He created the works spontaneously and according to his artistic conscience, bringing complete poetic truth. He stands out as an analyst and educator with the work "War and Peace". His works and ideology significantly influenced European thought and literature. He died in Astatovo, on November 20, 1910.
1835.- In France, the so-called "September laws" aimed at suppressing the radical left movement and introducing censorship in the press.
1898.- The French writer Stephane Mallarmé died, who significantly influenced the next generations of French writers. Work: "Songs and prose".
1901.- Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec died, a French painter, a great master of lithography whose favorite motifs were personalities and events from the night life of Montparnasse in Paris. He was born in Paris on June 24, 1864.
1914.- With a successful counter-offensive by French troops, aided by the British Expeditionary Corps, the first major battle on the Marne River in France ended after four days of heavy fighting in World War I. In the battle, the German loss was estimated at 800.000 people.
1920.- Todor Cipovski-Merdzan, a national hero of Yugoslavia, was born in Tetovo, Macedonia. He died in the fight against the ballists in the village of Belchica, Mavrovo region, on September 19, 1944.
1944.- The Kingdom of Bulgaria capitulated after the breakthrough of the Red Army units and after the outbreak of the popular uprising. - National holiday of Bulgaria.
1948.- Following the withdrawal of the Soviet army, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed north of the Korean Peninsula. - National holiday of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
1976.- Mao Zedong, a Chinese revolutionary, theorist and statesman, died in Beijing. He is the founder of the country's first Marxist group and one of the founders of the CP of China, which under his leadership won key victories in the liberation war against the Japanese invasion and the Great Chinese Revolution. He was born on December 26, 1893.
1984.- Yilmaz Guinea, a Turkish filmmaker and writer, one of the world's most talented filmmakers, died in Paris. He was born in 1937.
1991.- The Soviet Republic of Tajikistan declared independence.
1993.- Israel and the PLO have agreed on mutual recognition.
1994.- The Permanent Mission of the Republic of Macedonia to the United Nations in Vienna has started operating.
1994.- An American Boeing 737 crashed near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, killing all 131 passengers and crew.
1996.- Full diplomatic relations have been established between the FR of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.
1999.- A bomb blast near a Moscow apartment building in Chechnya has killed at least 94 people.
2001.- Ahmad Shah Musad, a longtime leading guerrilla commander in Afghanistan in the fight against the ruling Taliban, was mortally wounded. Masoud died five days later.
2003.- American nuclear physicist Edward Teller, dubbed the "father of hydrogen bombs", one of the most prominent physicists of the 20th century, has died. He received his doctorate in 1930 in Leipzig, where he and Werner Heisenberg laid the foundations of nuclear physics.
2004.- In Flintridge, California, USA, died Frank Thomas, the legendary animator of "Walt Disney". He has worked on almost every famous Disney animated film, from "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" to "Pinocchio" and "Bambi." He was born in 1912.
2015.- Britain's Queen Elizabeth II marks 63 years and seven months on the throne, marking the longest "monarchy" in British history. The 89-year-old queen has surpassed the previous record held by her cousin, Queen Victoria. According to precise calculations, the queen will be 17,30 days, 23.226 hours and 16 minutes on the throne of the United Kingdom at 30 pm British time. She ascended the throne after succeeding her father, King George VI, who died on February 6, 1952.