On this day - September 8
1157.- English King Richard I Plantagenet "Lionheart" was born, a hero of medieval legend and one of the leaders of the Third Crusade, who ruled from 1189 until his death in 1199.
1380.- The Grand Prince of Moscow Dimitrie Donsky defeated Kulik's Tatar army. It was Russia's first victory over the Tatars, who occupied Russia in the 13th century.
1474.- The Italian writer Lodovico Ariosto was born. His knightly epic "Furious Orlando" with motifs of the love madness of the hero Orlando from the time of Charlemagne, is one of the most brilliant poetic expressions of the spirit, moral and artistic tendencies of the Italian Renaissance.
1645.- The Spanish writer Francisco Gomez de Cavedo and Villegas died, a satirist who, due to his sharp tongue and sharp pen, was occasionally privileged in the courtyard, and occasionally persecuted and imprisoned.
1664.- Led by Colonel Richard Nichols, the British captured the Dutch town of New Amsterdam without a single shot being fired, which was later renamed New York in honor of James, Duke of York and later King James II.
1760.- British troops under Jeffrey Amherst defeated the French at Montreal in a key battle of the seven-year war for Canada.
1830.- French writer and philologist Frederic Mistral, winner of the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature, was born. He mostly wrote lyrical songs, epics and plays.
1841.- The Czech composer Antonin Dvorak, one of the creators of the Czech National School, was born. He also used folklore of other Slavic and North American peoples. His works are full of melody and orchestral colors full of Slavic feelings. He was a follower of the new classic by Johannes Brahms. He died in Prague on May 1, 1904.
1856.- In Paris, the peace treaty ended the Crimean War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, which began in 1853, and from 1854 Britain, France and the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) joined the war.
1900.- At least 8.000 people have been killed in a hurricane in Galveston, Texas.
1903.- In Bitola, Aleksandar Arkadievich Rostkovski, Russian consul in Bitola, was killed by two Albanian-Turkish guards. As a Russian diplomat in Macedonia, he closely followed the events in Macedonia, especially those that took place on the territory of the Bitola vilayet. He paid special attention to the activity of VMRO, to its branching out of city and village revolutionary committees, to the movement of the revolutionary detachments in Macedonia, and especially to the beginning of the Ilinden Uprising. He was born in 1860.
1925.- English film actor Peter Sellers, a famous comedian, was born.
1926.- The League of Nations unanimously accepted Germany as an equal member.
1931.- Russian troops under General Ivan Paskevich Erivansky captured Warsaw after a battle in which Polish insurgents under General Henrik Dembinski were defeated. More than 9.000 Poles were killed in the three-day battle.
1941.- German troops in World War II completely cut off Leningrad from the rest of the Soviet Union. Thus began the siege that ended in January 1944 with the victory of the Red Army. During the siege, about 620.000 inhabitants of the city died of starvation.
1942.- In the Lavchanska Korija, Bitola region, an NOP detachment "Jane Sandanski" was formed. This detachment also stayed in Aegean Macedonia, where it established cooperation with the anti-fascist movement in the Lerin and Kostur regions and with the "Vicho" detachment.
1943.- Radio Algeria announced the capitulation of Italy, and shortly afterwards Prime Minister Bodolio ordered the Italian armed forces to stop resisting the British and Americans.
1944.- Debar has been liberated.
1944.- The first German Fau 2 rocket in World War II, launched from The Hague, landed on London.
1944.- Soviet troops crossed the border into fascist Bulgaria in World War II.
1944.- Probistip and Krushevo were liberated.
1949.- Richard Strauss, German composer and conductor, died. He composed operas, operettas, ballets, solo songs, chamber music and more. He is the author of the operas "Saloma", "Electra", "Cavalier with a Rose", the poem "Don Juan" and other works. He was born on June 11, 1864.
1951.- Japan has signed a peace agreement with 49 countries in San Francisco, USA.
1954.- In Manila, the United States, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Pakistan, Great Britain and France, at the initiative of Washington, established the SEATO Pact, conceived as a link in the US strategy for the environment of the USSR. Its creation is described as "protecting Asia from the dangers of communism."
1967.- Uganda became a Republic with the entry into force of the new Constitution.
1967.- UNESCO has declared International Literacy Day.
1976.- Kiril Kamilov, a Macedonian participant in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), died in Skopje. He was born in Veles, on January 28, 1898.
1979.- Vidoe Smilevski - Bato, a national hero of Macedonia, a prominent revolutionary and socio-political leader, died in Skopje. He was born in the village of Nikiforovo, Gostivar region, on August 14, 1915.
1984.- Rita Bumi Papa, a prominent Greek poetess, a multiple participant in the Struga Poetry Evenings and the International Meeting of Literary Translators in Tetovo, died in Athens. He is the author of thirty books of poetry, prose and essays, among which the most important are the collection of poems "Love Songs", "Nena", "New Greenery", "The Pulse of My Silence", "A Thousand Killed Girls" (which also includes the song of the Macedonian heroine Mirka Ginova) and others. She is also the author of the anthology of world lyrics, which includes poems by Macedonian poets (Konstantin Miladinov, Rajko Zinzifov, Kocho Racin, Kole Nedelkovski, Aco Shopov, Mateja Matevski and Ante Popovski). She was born in 1906.
1991.- A referendum was held in the Republic of Macedonia in which the citizens with the right to vote voted on the question: Are you for an independent Macedonia with the right to enter a future union of sovereign states of Yugoslavia?. 1,2 million of our compatriots are participating in the Referendum, and according to the published results, the independence of Macedonia was supported almost 1.495.626%. According to the final, official results of 1.021.880 voters, 71,85 or 95,09 percent of eligible voters went to the referendum. 167% of them voted FOR an independent and sovereign Macedonian state. The Referendum was covered by 100 domestic and 2 foreign accredited journalists. The referendum in Macedonia was held on the eve of the break-up of the SFRY, after the final declaration of Slovenia and Croatia that they are committed to independence and autonomy. A pre-referendum campaign was conducted in Macedonia, and on September 1, a joint proclamation of the parliamentary and non-parliamentary parties was published, calling on the citizens to come out en masse and vote FOR the Referendum. The Albanian parties PDP and NDP did not support the declaration. Only the Union of Albanian Intelligence expressed support for the referendum. The Macedonian Orthodox Church joined the Referendum campaign and with an all-Macedonian Christian, Orthodox prayer, through a divine liturgy, held on September 15 in the Cathedral of St. Clement of Ohrid, proclaimed the importance of the Referendum as the third Ilinden epistle. In that period, more precisely on January 1992, 25, the Republic of Bulgaria was the first country to recognize the independence of Macedonia. Recognition from Turkey, Slovenia, Croatia, Russia and Bosnia and Herzegovina followed… Otherwise, the referendum was preceded by a Declaration of Independence adopted by the first multi-party Macedonian Parliament on January 1991, 18. results on September 1991, 17 in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. The next important step in strengthening the state was the adoption of the new Constitution on November 1991, 8. The boycott of the Referendum by a part of the Albanian ethnic community and the non-support of the new Constitution by the Albanian MPs cast a shadow over the events that laid the foundations of an independent Macedonia. The international legal subjectivity of the country was definitely confirmed on April 1993, 181, when by acclamation in the General Assembly of the United Nations, Macedonia was accepted for 158 full members of the World Organization. Due to Greek opposition and pressure, UN membership was made under the temporary reference of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Today, the Republic of Macedonia has established diplomatic relations with 117 countries in the world, and under its constitutional name is recognized by XNUMX, including three of the members of the Security Council - China, the Russian Federation and the United States.
1992.- The first regular postage stamp of the Republic of Macedonia was promoted.
1994.- All 132 passengers and crew of the American plane "Boeing 737" that took off from Chicago, died in the crash of the plane near the airport in Pittsburgh.
1995.- The foreign ministers of Yugoslavia, Croatia and the Sarajevo Muslim government reached an oral agreement in Geneva on the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities - the Republika Srpska and the Muslim-Croat Federation - and on basic constitutional principles.
1995.- Risto Markovski, a Macedonian journalist and well-known publicist in the field of science and technology, died in Skopje. He was born in Galichnik, in 1927.
1997.- At least 150 people were killed off the west coast of Haiti when a packed ferry sank off the island of Gonav.
2000.- The gathering at the UN headquarters in New York was attended by most of the world's leaders - kings, presidents and prime ministers of 150 countries.
2003.- German director and photographer Lenny Riefenstahl, the last significant figure of the Nazi era, official cynic of the Third Reich and favorite director of Adolf Hitler, has died.
2017.- Ljubisa Samardzic, an actor known throughout the territories of the former Yugoslavia, has died at the age of 81. Samardzic studied law and then transferred to the Academy of Dramatic Arts. Thanks to the scholarship of the director Bojan Stupica, he started acting in the theater. He played the first role in Branko Bauer 's film "Overcrowded", followed by a series of films, "Days", "The Tree Landing", "The Battle of the Neretva", for which he won the Grand Prix in Nis. He was also awarded for his role in the film "Morning" at the Venice Film Festival. For a long time he acted in partisan films, and at the same time he played a number of roles in the TV series "Hot Wind", "Autumn is Coming, My Quince", "The Return of the Written Up", "The Policeman from Petlovo Hill", "Where the Wild Boars Go". In 1988 he received the highest state award "AVNOJ", which was awarded for the first time to a film actor. He left all the awards he inherited to the Yugoslav cinematography. His last role was in the series "The Smell of Rain in the Balkans" in 2011 where he also appears as a director. He was born in Skopje in a family of miners in 1936.
2017.- Pierre Berge, an influential French businessman and philanthropist, Yves Saint Laurent's longtime emotional and business partner, has died at the age of 86. Berge was also CEO of Yves Saint Laurent's fashion empire and chairman of Le Monde magazine. Berge gave Yves Saint Laurent the greatest support when he left the Dior fashion house and thanks to him, Laurent built his own empire.
2017.- Troy Gentry, a member of the Montgomery Gentry music duo, was killed in a helicopter crash just hours before a concert. The helicopter crashed in a wooded area near Medford Flying W Airport, just hours before the concert, which was scheduled to take place at a resort. Gentry was born on April 5, 1967, in Lexington, Kentucky, where he met Eddie Montgomery, with whom he formed a group named after them.
2019.- Vasil Pujovski, originally from the Aegean part of Macedonia, died. During the Civil War he was separated from his loved ones and brought with his father to Skopje, where he grew up and went to school. He graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy, but he carried the surviving Golgotha of the broken family deep inside, trying to express it through the written word. He worked in Nova Makedonija, then in the Editorial Office of the weekly "Ekran" and then in the Macedonian Television. He has been the editor of the most popular children's series "Sharam-baram", "Do-re-mi", "Chuk, chuk, Stojance", "The second shift", "Smart heads (first part" and many others. He wrote " The World of a Child's Dream "(poetry for children, 1967)," Before God's Court "(poetry, 1969)," Let's hang out "(children's TV series, 1985)," Give music "(poetry for children, 1994) and many others.