On this day - October 24
1360.- King Edward III of England and King Jean II of France, the English prisoner of war at Poitiers in 1356, signed an agreement in Calais that ended the first phase of the Hundred Years' War. The French monarch was forced to cede some French territories to England, and Edward III in turn renounced his rights to the French throne.
1601.- The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, who set up an observatory on the island of Hwen and observed the planets for almost two decades, especially Mars, has died. Discovered a new star in the constellation Cassiopeia.
1632.- The Dutch naturalist Anthony van Levenhook was born, who, although a bookseller by profession, engaged in microbiological research and discovered the hitherto unknown world of microorganisms. He created the first simple microscopes, but later devoted himself to them, constructing about 400 microscopes. He published the results of research on blood vessels, the structure of bones, muscles, erythrocytes and sperm in the publications of the Royal Society of London of which he was a member.
1648.- The Thirty Years' War ended with the Peace of Westphalia between the German Emperor and the rulers of France and Sweden. France received Alsace, Metz and Tulle from Germany, Sweden received almost all of Pomerania, and Germany remained divided into a number of states. The Austrian emperor remained a German emperor, but with very limited powers. The independence of Switzerland and the Netherlands was recognized and the equality of Roman Catholics and Protestants was proclaimed.
1697.- Austrian Field Marshal Eugen Savojski with about 8.500 troops penetrated the Bosna River valley in Sarajevo and set the city on fire.
1795.- Russia, Austria and Prussia divided the territory of Poland.
1797.- Lima, the capital of Peru, was devastated by an earthquake that killed about 5.000 people.
1857.- The Sheffield Football Club was formed in Sheffield, England. It is the oldest football club in the world.
1891.- The Dominican dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina was born, who ruled the Dominican Republic from 1930 to 1961 as an American protégé. In May 1961 he was killed in an ambush near Ciudad Trujillo.
1912.- With the victory of the First Serbian Army under the command of Aleksandar Karadjordjevic over the Turkish Vardar Army of Zeki Pasha, the two-day battle of Kumanovo, crucial in the First Balkan War, ended.
1914.- Jonas Edward Salk, American microbiologist, was born. In 1955 he discovered the polio vaccine (polio). He has saved millions of children worldwide from polio. He died in La Jola, California, USA on June 23, 1955.
1915.- Tito Gobi, Italian opera singer, baritone, was born. He has performed on all opera stages around the world and has left a repertoire of over a hundred roles. He achieved the greatest success with the creations of Rigoletto, Scarpia ("Tosca"), Falstav, Figaro ("The Barber of Seville") and Don Giovanni. He also sang in several music films ("Giuseppe Verdi", "Clowns"). He died in 1984.
1918.- Realizing that the complete defeat of the central powers was inevitable with the disintegration of Austria-Hungary, Emperor Charles requested intervention from the Catholic Church to end the war. However, the Vatican intervention was unsuccessful. The Allies continued the operation, forcing Austria-Hungary and Germany to surrender unconditionally.
1932.- Vojislav (Vojce) Sinadinovski was born in Skopje, Macedonian athlete, handball player, gymnast, basketball player, one of the pioneers of modern volleyball in Macedonia. He died in Skopje in 2000.
1945.- The Charter of the United Nations has entered into force, which, together with the Statute of the International Court of Justice, is a fundamental document of the organization and operation of this world organization. That day is celebrated as United Nations Day. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was admitted as an equal member of the United Nations on April 8, 1993.
1945.- Norwegian Nazi leader and World War II puppet leader Vidkun Quisling, previously sentenced to death for treason, has been shot dead in Oslo.
1948.- The Austrian composer Franz Lehar, the most important representative of the Viennese opera in the first half of the 20th century, has died. Works: the operetta "The Merry Widow", "The Count of Luxembourg".
1957.- French fashion designer Christian Dior, one of the major "fashion dictators" in the world after World War II, has died.
1964.- The British African colony of Northern Rhodesia gained independence as the Republic of Zambia. Its president was Kenneth Kaunda. Following a civil disobedience action in 1962 organized by the United National Independence Party, led by Kaunda, the British government was forced to adopt a constitution in Northern Rhodesia and then, after 73 years of colonial rule, recognize independence.
1974.- Russian violinist and conductor David Fjordovich Oistrakh, one of the greatest violin masters of the 20th century, has died. He graduated from the conservatory in his native Odessa, in 1935 he became famous with the prize at the International Violin Competition in Warsaw, and in 1937 with the "Isa" Prize in Brussels. He was a professor at the Moscow Conservatory and performed with great success around the world.
1990.- A meeting of Balkan foreign ministers began in Tirana to discuss ways to boost Albania's co-operation with Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, Romania and Turkey. A favorable atmosphere was created for the development of relations and the settlement of disputes and problems in the Balkans, but no concrete agreement was reached.
1997.- Five kilometers below the surface of the Indian Ocean, divers found an American ship carrying 2.000 tons of silver, which President Roosevelt had sent to Stalin in 1944. Roosevelt wanted to help the Russians fight Hitler, but the plan failed when German submarines sank the ship. The silver in the ship was worth at least $ 330 million.
2005.- African-American Rosa Parks, the first black woman to be convicted in 1955 of violating then-racial laws in the southern US state of Alabama by refusing to give a white man a seat on a bus, has died. That led to the founding of the black rights movement in America.
2014.- Google CEO Alain Justas jumped from the edge of space and broke the sound barrier, breaking the 39.044-meter record set by Felix Baumgartner two years ago. Justas (57) in absolute secrecy jumped from a height of almost 42 km and set a new record. Justas wore a specially designed spacesuit. Preparations for this endeavor took 34 months.