On this day - January 23
1516.- Spanish King Ferdinand II and Fifth Catholic died (Ferdinand II ruled Aragon and Ferdinand V ruled Castile and Leon). His accession to the throne of Aragon in 1479 marked the beginning of the history of the unification of Spain.
1556.- The most catastrophic earthquake in the history of the world took place in the densely populated province of Shanxi in China, which killed an estimated 830.000 people. The huge number of victims was due to the fact that the population lived in artificial caves. yaodung), excavated in loose clay.
1719.- With the unification of Vaduz and Schellenberg, the Principality of Liechtenstein was created.
1783.- Born in Grenoble was Marie-Henri Bale, known under the pseudonym Stendhal, the founder of the great epoch of French realism. In his novel Red and Black, he proved to be an excellent chronicler, analyst and critic of French society at the time of the Restoration. His most famous novel is The Cathedral Monastery of Parma. He died in 1842.
1806.- The English statesman William Pitt Jr., who in 1783 became the youngest Prime Minister in British history, has died. While prime minister until 1801 and from 1804 to 1806, he pursued an expansionist colonial policy, and in India he consolidated British rule by reforming the administration. As a sworn enemy of the French Revolution, he was the main organizer of the European coalition against revolutionary and Napoleonic France.
1832.- Born in Paris, Edouard Manet, a French painter, a direct ancestor of the Impressionists. His painting "Breakfast in Nature" is one of the first paintings with which he deviated from the conventional academic way of painting. He mostly painted portraits in oil (Zola, Clemenceau, Proust and others), but one of his favorite subjects was painting in nature. He died in Paris on April 30, 1883.
1862.- Dimitrija Miladinov, Macedonian national revivalist, poet, teacher, publicist and scientist, died in Constantinople. Bale collector of folklore and founder of Macedonian ethnography. His poetry has a pronounced lyrical temperament, and his work consists of several lyrical wholes. Together with his younger brother Constantine he led an organized struggle against Hellenization. He was born in Struga, in 1810.
1878.- Oton Zupancic, one of the greatest Slovenian poets, was born. In his work, he artistically reflected the national and social problems of his people. He enriched Slovenian poetry with free rhythm and dynamic style. His famous collections are "Drinking Glass", "Ciciban", "Across the Fields" and others. He died in Ljubljana on June 11, 1949.
1891.- The Italian revolutionary and theorist Antonio Gramsci, the founder of the Communist Party of Italy in 1921, was born. He edited the newspapers "Il grido del popolo", "Avanti" and "Ordine nuovo".
1898.- Russian film director Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein, one of the world's greatest film theorists and stylists, was born. He was an architect by profession and in the beginning he drew posters, he worked as a set designer and theater director who, introducing novelties, aspired to pure realistic elements in the theater as well. Movies: "Strike", "October", "Old and New", "Sentimental Romance" (shot in France), "Long Live Mexico", "Alexander Nevski", "Ivan the Terrible". Books: "Film Feelings", "Film Shape".
1901.- In Thessaloniki, Turkish police arrested Aleksandar Nikov, secretary of the TMRO Central Committee, and Milan Mihailov, an official of the TMRO Central Committee. It was also the beginning of one of the biggest burglaries that had severe consequences for TMRO.
1928.- French film actress Jeanne Moreau was born, who became famous in the films of the French "new wave" after the Second World War. Movies: "Lovers", "Dangerous Relationship", "Moderato Cantabile", "Night", "Gilles and Jim", "Process", "Eve", "The Diary of a Maid", "Viva Maria", "Catherine the Great" . She directed the film "Light" according to her own script.
1931.- Russian ballerina Anna Pavlovna Pavlova, the greatest ballet artist of the classical style in the early 20th century, has died. She started her career in Petrograd, performing with the famous Vaclav Nizhinsky in Sergei Zhagilev's Russian Ballet. Then she formed her own group with which she performed all over the world, especially delighting the audience with her performance in the ballets "Swan Death", "Pepertuki", "Swan Lake", "Gisela", "Raymonda".
1944.- Norwegian painter Edward Munch, world famous for his painting "Creek", has died.
1957. - Vlatko Stefanovski, Macedonian guitarist, was born. For the new 1976, Vlatko, Bodan, Kokan and Dimitar formed "Bread and Salt", in which Vlatko (for twenty years of existence) was a very successful leader and the most prolific member. During the 20 years of "Bread and Salt" were recorded 12 albums and music for film, theater, television works… As the most advanced player in the group he wrote the unforgettable: I'm not yours, Wavelength, Godfather straw, A living wound,, Like cocoa, Skopje, Knock on wood… He continues to have a successful career in Macedonian and one of the most successful regional leaders in the art of guitar.
1968.- In North Korean waters, the DNR Korean Navy captured the American ship "Pueblo", which served as a floating spy station and was equipped with state-of-the-art interception and decryption devices. The Pueblo case has caused great tension in relations between the two countries. DNR Korea later released the crew who returned to the United States.
1969.- Nikola Ristanovski, Macedonian theater, film and television actor, was born. Ristanovski was born in the Czech city of Ostrava, and when he was 7 years old, he moved to Tetovo with his family. After graduating from the Faculty of Dramatic Arts in Skopje, he became part of the Macedonian National Theater in 1994. During his career he has acted in over 40 plays and 15 films and won 28 international and Macedonian awards, making him the most awarded Macedonian actor.
1973.- US President Richard Nixon has announced that an agreement has been reached to end military hostilities with Vietnam.
1989.- Spanish painter Salvador Dali, one of the greatest painters of the 20th century, has died. He shook the foundations of painting. He went through the stages of Futurism, Cubism and Abstract Rationalism, to keep up with Surrealism, always with drawings made to perfection. In the XNUMXs, he painted the works that caused the shock - "The Great Masturbator", "Predicting the Civil War". He also worked as a costume designer and set designer in Laus Buњuel's films "Andalusian Dog" and "Golden Age". He wrote the autobiographical work "The Secret Life of Slavador Dali".
1991.- The first multi-party unicameral Assembly of the City of Skopje was constituted. Milan Talevski, MP of VMRO-DPMNE, was elected President.
1992.- Estonian Prime Minister Edgar Savisar has resigned amid food and energy shortages in his breakaway country.
2000.- More than a million people demonstrated in central Madrid against the resumption of a campaign of violence by the Basque terrorist organization ETA.
2000.- Aleksandar Hristovski, a Macedonian writer, died in Skopje. His famous works are "Horses under the Moon", "Korea" and "Horseman Coyote". He was born in the village of Lazaropole, on May 24, 1933.
2000.- Vladimir Shopov, Macedonian poet and publicist, son of the famous poet Aco Shopov, died in Skopje. He is the author of several books of poetry for children, including "Lucida Interval", "Chalk" and others. He was born in Belgrade on December 16, 1948.
2000.- Ranko Strumenikovski, Macedonian academic painter, one of the most respected Macedonian masters of art graphics, drawing and design, died in Bitola. He was born in 1936.
2002.- Wall Street Journal journalist Daniel Pearl was abducted by Islamic terrorists in Karachi, Pakistan, as he tried to establish contact with Pakistani radical Islamist groups. The kidnappers killed him on February 22.
2003.- Italian industrialist Giovanni Agnelli, who transformed the family car company Fiat into one of the world's most important car manufacturers, has died. Agnelli, whose grandfather founded the company in Turin in 1899, became CEO in 1963 and president in 1966, remaining in that position at Fiat for 30 years.
2004.- The European satellite Mars Express sent ice images to the south pole of Mars.
2005.- Macedonia and Thailand have established diplomatic relations.
2006.- A train crash near Podgorica killed 46 passengers and injured 364 when a train on the Bijelo Pole-Bar route derailed and overturned in an abyss more than 30 meters deep.