On this day - September 19

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1356.- The English army led by the Black Prince, son of King Edward III, defeated the French army of King Jean II at the Battle of Poitiers, ending the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. The same day in 1370 the Black Prince captured and ravaged the city of Limoges.

1551.- King Henry III of France, the last monarch of the Valois dynasty, was born.

1802.- Born Hungarian revolutionary Lajos Koshut, leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, he was an opponent of the feudal-absolutist regime of the Habsburg monarchy. On May 2, 1849, he was elected the first Prime Minister of a free Hungary.

1833.- Montenegrin Bishop Petar II Petrovic Njegos received a Russian passport.

1881.- The President of the United States, James Abram Garfield, died of his injuries in the assassination in Washington on July 2, 1881. Garfield, an opponent of black slavery, became head of state on March 4, 1881.

1888.- The first beauty pageant in the world was held in the Belgian Spa. The first most beautiful woman in the world was 18-year-old Creole woman from Guadeloupe Berta Sucare.

1893.- New Zealand became the first country in which all women were eligible to vote.

1911.- William Golding, an English writer, was born in St. Colum Major, Cornwall. In 1983 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature. His famous works are "Spiral", "Pyramid", "Visible Darkness", "Master of the Flies" and others. He died in Walmouth on June 19, 1993.

1914.- Stefan Jakimov Dedov, a Macedonian activist, founder of the Macedonian Readers' Club in Belgrade, within which he published the Balkan Glasnik newspaper, was killed in Sofia. In Sofia, Dedov worked for the Balkan and Kurir newspapers, was a member of the Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society in St. Petersburg and co-author, together with Mishajkov, of the Russian Government's Memorandum, the first Macedonian national liberation program. He was born in Ohrid, on October 28, 1869.

1922.- Born the Czech athlete Emil Zatopek, who won a gold medal in the 1948m at the 10.000 London Olympics and the 1952m, 5.000m and marathon at the 10.000 Games in Helsinki. He broke 18 world records and won 69 races in a row from 1949 to 1951.

1928.- The first animated cartoon "Steamboat Willie" starring Mickey Mouse is shown. The screening was at the Colony Theater in New York.

1933.- Aco Gjorcev, a famous Macedonian actor, was born in Negotino. He achieved his most significant achievements on the stage of the Drama Theater in Skopje. He died in Skopje on July 26, 1993.

1935.- Russian physicist Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovski, father of astronauts, has died. As early as 1883 he presented the ideas for the use of jet propulsion in rockets, and in 1903 he published the first classic work on the theory of astronautics. The Soviet Academy of Sciences established the Tsiolkovski Gold Medal for Outstanding Contribution to Astronautics and Space Exploration.

1941.- German troops occupied Kiev in World War II after a 45-day battle.

1942.- In the vicinity of Prilep, after being severely tortured by the Bulgarian police, he was killed by throwing Rampo Levkov - Levkata, a national hero of Yugoslavia, from Macedonia. He was born in Prilep, on January 9, 1909.

1942.- Near the village of Dabnica, in the locality of Dabnicki Zavoj, Prilep, the Bulgarian occupier insidiously massacred 18 Macedonian patriots. Only Petko Velkoski and Tode Risteski-Keleshot managed to escape. There happened to be living witnesses among the massacred, to tell about this bloody event, called "Dabnik Slaughter".

1944.- The village of Belicica, Gostivar region, was surrounded by about 300 well-armed ballistas at a time when 35 fighters of the Third Partisan Detachment were staying in it, armed with only two machine guns and several rifles. 21 partisans lost their lives in the unequal struggle, including Todor Cipovski - Merdzan, national hero of Yugoslavia, from Macedonia (born in the village of Belicica, in 1920) and Goce Stojcevski - Ambarce, national hero of Yugoslavia, from Macedonia (born is in the village of Belichica, in 1919). The ballistas set fire to the village, and 17 residents of the village were thrown into the fire and burned.

1949.- By decision of the Committee for Tourism and Hospitality of the Government of the People's Republic of Macedonia, the State Secondary Hospitality and Tourism School "Lazar Tanev" in Skopje was established.

1955.- In Argentina, the military ousted President Juan Perронn, who sparked outrage among the Roman Catholic Church by separating the church from the state. Peron lived on the run until 1973, when he was re-elected president. He was head of state until his death in 1974.

1957.- The Americans in Nevada began the first underground nuclear tests.

1961.- The citizens of Jamaica voted in a referendum to separate the country from the West Indian Federation.

1973.- It is officially announced in China that 700 million people live in this country.

1974.- The Fifi hurricane in Central America (Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala) killed 20.000 people and left more than 200.000 homeless.

1985.- A devastating earthquake measuring 8,1 on the Richter scale struck Mexico. It killed about 10.000 people, and the material damage is estimated at about six million dollars. 12.000 people died in the capital.

1985.- Italo Calvini, one of the most famous Italian writers, died in Siena, Italy. His most famous novels are "The Folding Viscount", "Smog Clouds", "Invisible Cities" and other essays and poetry collections. He was born in 1923.

1988.- The explosion of the DC-10 plane of the French company UTA from a total of 171 passengers and crew members no one survived. The crash happened over Niger, when the plane was flying from Brazil to Paris. Libya was later blamed for the blast.

1992. - In the village of Stajkovci, Skopje, was laid and consecrated the cornerstone of the new church "St. Cyril and Methodius".

1992.- The United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution excluding Yugoslavia from the work of the General Assembly and challenging its first UN succession to the SFRY. The Yugoslav mission was allowed to establish contacts in New York with other UN bodies.

1994.- The Government of the Republic of Macedonia adopted a decision on the accession of the Republic of Macedonia to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

1994.- One thousand US troops have been transferred to Haiti in what Washington called "the re-establishment of democracy" in the Caribbean island nation.

1996. - The Republic of Macedonia has acceded to the three conventions of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

1999.- International peacekeepers have entered East Timor.

1999.- Petar Pepeljugoski, general, participant in the National Liberation War of Macedonia, and after the war a high military leader, died in Skopje. He was born in Prilep, on October 12, 1924.

2002.- Five people were killed in central Tel Aviv when a suicide bomber detonated an explosive device on a bus. The Israeli government then decided to isolate Yasser Arafat, and tanks surrounded the West Bank headquarters in Ramallah.

2003.- The presidents of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan in Yalta signed an agreement to establish a common economic space.

2005.- Jacques Lacarier, one of the greatest contemporary French writers, died in Paris. He is a well-known promoter of Macedonian culture, and his articles dedicated to Macedonian painting, literature and theater were published in prestigious French magazines.

2006.- A coup has taken place in Thailand. The military overthrew the government of Thaksin Shinawatra and established an interim government loyal to the crown. An official spokesman explained that a military coup was necessary because the government of billionaire Thaksin Shinawatra had plunged the country into a serious crisis.

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