On this day - September 17

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1580.- The Spanish writer Francisco Gomez de Cavedo and Villegas was born, a satirist who was occasionally privileged in the palace for his "cunning tongue and poisonous pen" and occasionally persecuted and imprisoned.

1685.- London was hit by a major plague epidemic that killed an estimated 70.000 people.

1787.- Delegates from 12 of the then 13 states in the United States signed the Constitution, which with additional amendments is still the oldest valid constitution in the world.

1796.- The first president of the United States, George Washington, the head of state since 1789, addressed a "Farewell Sermon" to the American people, refusing to run for a third term.

1809.- The Swedish-Russian war with which Russia conquered Finland is over.

1826.- German mathematician Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann was born, who gave new directions in the development of mathematics and its applications in physics and mechanics.

1857.- Russian physicist Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovski, father of astronautics, was born. As early as 1883 he presented the ideas for the use of jet propulsion in rockets, and in 1903 he published the first classic work on the theory of astronautics. The Soviet Academy of Sciences established the Tsiolkovski Gold Medal for Outstanding Contribution to Astronautics and Space Exploration. He died on September 19, 1935.

1863.- Alfred de Vigny, the great writer of the French Renaissance, died. He is known for the works "Moses", "Eloa", "Chatterton" and others. He was born on March 27, 1797.

1890.- France Bevk, a Slovenian writer and fighter for national and social rights of the Slovenian people under Italy, was born in Zakojci, near Cerkna. His most famous works are "Captain Martin Chedermac", "Man Against Man", "Black Brothers and Sisters" and others. He died in Ljubljana on September 17, 1970.

1900.- Britain's Queen Victoria I has signed a document bringing Australia into the Commonwealth as a federal union of six former British colonies.

1905.- Vladan Desnica, a Croatian writer, translator and essayist, was born in Zadar. Among the works known to him are "Snake Holiday", "Ivan Galeb's Spring", "Here Right Ahead of Us" and others. He died on March 4, 1967.

1908.- Russian violinist and conductor David Fyodorovich Oistrakh, one of the greatest violin masters of the 20th century, was born. He graduated from the conservatory in his hometown of Odessa, and became famous in 1935 with the prize at the International Violin Competition in Warsaw and in 1937 with the "Isa" Prize in Brussels. He was a professor at the Moscow Conservatory and performed with great success all over the world.

1918.- After a three-day offensive, the First and Second Serbian armies broke through the Thessaloniki front, breaking the central forces in the First World War. Forty days after the offensive, Austria-Hungary capitulated, and soon Germany.

1918.- Israeli statesman Haim Herzog was born. He was president of Israel from 1983 to 1993. Prior to that, he was the commander of the Southern Army District and the first military governor of the West Bank to be occupied in 1967, and from 1975 to 1978 he was Israel's ambassador to the United Nations.

1939.- Soviet units based on the Ribbentrop-Molotov agreement invaded Poland and occupied the eastern parts. The attack captured 180.000 soldiers and about 9.000 officers, followed by the liquidation of the captured Poles.

1943.- The first school in Macedonian language started operating in the village of Podvis, Kichevo region.

1944.- The largest air landing in World War II began. It was to establish a bridge over the Rhine and allow the Allies to penetrate north of the Ruhr. The plan was discovered by the Germans so they managed to defeat the British near the Dutch city of Arnhem. It was not until five months later that the Allies crossed the Rhine.

1944.- In the village of Mitrashinci, Berovo region, the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Macedonian Brigades and the Fiftieth Division of the National Liberation Army and the People's Liberation Army were formed.

1948.- Swedish Count Volke Bernadot, the United Nations mediator in the Israeli-Arab conflict, has been assassinated near Jerusalem.

1949.- More than 130 people have been killed in a fire on the Noronick, the largest steamer on the Great Lakes, near Toronto.

1957.- Kresimir Baranovic, Croatian composer, conductor and music pedagogue, died. He is the author of the first Croatian ballet "Lycitar Heart". His other works are the opera "The Bride from Constantinople", compositions for orchestras, songs, theater music and more. He was born on July 25, 1894.

1961.- Doug Hammarskj ,ld, the UN Secretary-General, was killed in a plane crash near Ndola in northern Rhodesia on suspicion of being the victim of an assassination attempt.

1961.- Former Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, who ousted General Cemal Gursel's military junta in May 1960, is hanged. The military junta claimed that Menderes's Democratic Party, which was in power after Turkey's first free elections in 1950, "betrayed the principles" of Turkey's first president, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.

1970.- Armed clashes between King Hussein's army and Palestinian guerrillas have broken out in Jordan.

1978.- Talks between Egyptian President Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister Begin and US President Carter ended at Camp David. Two documents were signed: a framework for peace in the Middle East and a framework for a peace agreement between Egypt and Israel.

1980.- Former Nicaraguan dictator General Anastasio Somos Debayle was assassinated in Paraguay, where he lived in exile after being ousted in July 1979.

1985.- Julian Beck died in New York, an American director who together with his wife Judith Mamara founded the avant-garde Living Theater in the 50s of the last century. He was born in New York in 1925.

1987.- The Association of Electricians of SR Macedonia has been established in Skopje.

1991.- The Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia adopted a Declaration stating that the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia on September 8, 1991 plebiscitely confirmed the statehood and sovereignty of the Republic of Macedonia and expressed their will for it to be constituted as a sovereign and independent state.

1994.- The Austrian-born British philosopher Carl Raymond Popper, one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century, has died.

1995.- Assassin kills Algerian presidential candidate Abdelhafid Benhadid in front of his house near the Algerian capital.

1996.- In Beijing, at the Conference of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the Republic of Macedonia was admitted to the Group of Mediterranean Countries.

1997.- Richard (known as Red) Skelton, an American comedian, died at the Eisenhower Medical Center in the desert town of Rancho Mirage. He was born in 1913.

1998.- In Skopje, the first issue of the daily newspaper "Macedonia Today", a newspaper of the democratic public, was published by NIK "Denes".

1998.- Kanal 5 television started operating in Skopje.

2001.- The Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia adopted a Declaration condemning the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, USA, on September 11, 2001.

2001.- The New York Stock Exchange went public after a four-day hiatus caused by the September 11 terrorist attacks. Wall Street saw the biggest drop in stock value in a single day in history.

2002.- In Pyongyang during a historic meeting between North Korean leader Kim Jong Il and Japanese Prime Minister Yonichiri Koizumi, Kim apologized for the previously abducted Japanese citizens and announced a halt to missile tests.

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