On this day - September 16
1380.- The French King Charles V the Wise died, who as a regent during the time when his father Jean II was a prisoner of the English, in 1358 suppressed the great peasant uprising known as Zacharias. During the reign of 1360, after the Hundred Years' War with the British, he managed to gain a large part of the territory that France lost with the catastrophic British Treaty.
1387.- Born English King Henry V, who during his reign from 1413 until his death in 1422 continued the Hundred Years' War with France. He defeated the French at Azencur in 1415 and conquered Paris.
1498.- The Spanish Dominican Thomas de Torquemada, the first "Grand Inquisitor" from 1483 to 1949, a symbol of the infamous Roman Catholic Inquisition in Spain, died. As head of the inquisitorial tribunal, he burned people and "heretical books", and in 1942 persuaded King Ferdinand V to issue a decree expelling the Jews, after which 300.000 Jews were forced to flee Spain.
1736.- The German physicist Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, who made the first mercury thermometer in 1726, died. He also created the 180-degree temperature scale, named after him, at which the freezing point is 32 degrees. The Fahrenheit scale is used in the United States, and was previously used in the United Kingdom.
1745.- Russian military leader Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov, one of the greatest military strategists of the 19th century, was born. During the invasion of Russia by French Emperor Napoleon I in 1812 after the Battle of Borodin, despite opposition from Tsar and General Alexander I, he allowed the French to enter Moscow and then defeated them, driving them out of Paris. During the war against the Ottoman Empire in 1811 he was very successful in commanding the Russian-Moldovan army. Due to its great popularity among the Russian people, three Kutuz orders were established in the USSR during World War II. He died in Boleslavec, Poland, on April 28, 1813.
1810.- With a mass armed peasant uprising led by Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morales, the struggle for independence from the Spanish colonizers began in Mexico. That day has been declared a national holiday of the state of Mexico, which has been a Spanish colony since 1519.
1824.- King Louis XVIII of France, who ruled during the restoration of France after the fall of Emperor Napoleon, died. He was crowned king in 1795, but ruled from 1814 until his death, when he was succeeded by his brother Charles X.
1859.- Scottish explorer David Livingstone has discovered the Great Lakes Jassa in East Africa, which is divided by Malawi, Tanzania and Mozambique.
1861.- The city of Zagreb presented Vuk Karadzic with the Charter of Honorary Citizen, which gives "all rights, freedoms and goods to every citizen of Zagreb according to the law and the old folk customs".
1908.- Vienna and Moscow agreed that Austria-Hungary would not oppose the opening of the Bosphorus to Russian ships, and Russia allowed Austria-Hungary to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina. The agreement between the two ministers ended the annexation crisis that threatened a world war.
1923.- Singaporean statesman Lee Kuan Yew was born, the father of independent Singapore and the creator of the country's glorious economic boom in Southeast Asia. He was prime minister from 1959 to 1990. Under his authoritarian rule, Singapore has grown from the poorest British colony in the far south of the Malay Peninsula to a thriving industrial and commercial metropolis.
1924.- American film actress Betty Persk, known as Lorraine Beckall, the wife of Humphrey Bogart, with whom she played the role of a confident aggressive woman in the films, was born.
1931.- Italian colonial forces captured and executed Libyan national leader Omar Muktar.
1941.- Hitler ordered the commander of the German armed forces for the southeast to suppress the insurgent movement in the Balkans. According to Hitler's order, the partisans had to be severely disabled and 50 to 100 hostages had to be executed for the murder of a German soldier.
1941.- Following the entry of Soviet and British troops into Iran during World War II, the pro-German monarch Reza Shah abdicated in favor of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
1944.- In the Netherlands, the Allies launched an airborne operation over the Siegfried Line.
1945.- The rest of the Japanese army in Hong Kong surrendered to British forces at the end of World War II.
1959.- French President Charles de Gaulle recognized the right of the Algerian people to self-determination on the radio.
1963.- Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore formed the Malaysian Federation.
1967.- UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has called on the United States not to bomb North Vietnam, but Washington has ignored the call.
1975. The South Pacific state of Papua New Guinea has gained full independence from Australia.
1977.- Maria Callas, a soprano, an American opera singer of Greek descent, died in Paris. Her wide voice range and suggestive acting contributed to her worldwide fame. She was born in New York on December 4, 1923.
1978.- An earthquake in the Iranian city of Tabas and surrounding villages has killed at least 25.000 people.
1980.- Dragan Tashkovski, a prominent Macedonian historian, publicist and socio-political worker, died on Hvar. He was born in Skopje, on September 10, 1917.
1989.- Robert Penn Warren, American writer, three-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize (the greatest recognition for journalism, fiction and poetry), has died. He gained worldwide fame with the novel "All the King's Men" for which he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1947. He was born in 1905.
1996.- Romania and Hungary have signed an agreement to end all disputes between the two neighboring countries, making it easier for Bucharest and Budapest to join the EU and NATO.
1996.- The city of Veles from this date is without the suffix "Titov". It has been called Titov Veles since October 11, 1946.
1998.- The Basque terrorist organization ETA has announced that a full ceasefire will take effect on September 18 after three decades of fighting for the secession of the Basque Country - the cancellation of all actions against the Spanish authorities.
2001.- Iran says Tehran Mayor Morteza Alviri has expressed his condolences to New York counterpart Rudolf Giuliani over the 11/1979 terrorist attacks. It was the first official public communication between Iran and the United States since the XNUMX Islamic Revolution in Iran.
2007.- A Thai passenger plane crashed on Phuket Island, killing 130 of the 90 passengers on board. The plane was flying from Bangkok to Phuket with 125 passengers and five crew members on board.
2007.- Emilio Ruiz de Rio, Spanish filmmaker, expert in visual special film effects, dies. He has starred in films such as "Doctor Zhivago", "Lawrence of Arabia" and "Dina". During his 60-year career, he worked on more than 450 films in Europe and the United States. He has collaborated with many famous directors, such as Orson Welles, Stanley Qubik and George Zukor.
2013.- At the age of 92, prof. Dr. Save Mironski, one of the founders of the Medical Faculty in Skopje, former dean and founder and director of the Infectious Diseases Clinic. Prof. Mironski was regarded as an exceptional connoisseur of medicine and a top expert in internal and infectious medicine in the Balkan region. He studied medicine in Sofia in 1942, then returned to Skopje and graduated from the Medical Faculty in Belgrade. Mironski was one of the founders of the Department of Internal and Infectious Medicine, having worked as one of the first heads of the Department of Endocrinology. He remained the director of the Infectious Diseases Clinic for 26 years, until his retirement in 1986.