On this day - October 16
1430.- Born King James II of Scotland, who ruled from 1437 to 1460. During his reign he strengthened the authority of the crown, successfully continuing the work begun by his father James I. In 1460 the English killed him.
1553.- Luca Kranach, German painter and engraver, one of the most important German Renaissance artists, died. He was born in 1472.
1649.- Isaac van Ostade, Dutch painter, died. He was born on June 2, 1621.
1758.- The American philologist and lexicographer Noah Webster was born, a symbol of the lexicographical tradition in America. In 1806 he published his first dictionary in English, and in 1828 he published the dictionary which still bears his name. This dictionary is considered to be the best dictionary in modern English.
1781.- Born in Weillen, York, to George Stevenson, the English inventor of the "father of the railroad", who founded the first locomotive factory in Newcastle in 1814 and built the first public railway line between Stockton and Darlington in 1825. which was put into service for passenger transport on September 25, 1825. In 1829 he built the Liverpool-Manchester line, on which his locomotive "Rocket" reached a record 56 kilometers per hour. He died in a small town near Chesterfield on August 12, 1848.
1793.- The French Queen Marie Antoinette, the wife of King Louis XVI of France, who had previously ended up on the guillotine, was executed in Paris. The reckoning of the revolution with the royal couple has long been one of the justifications for the internationalist wars of monarchist Europe against the French Republic.
1813.- At Leipzig, the so-called "Battle of the Nations", in which Napoleon's forces found themselves under the blows of the allied allies: Russia, Prussia and Austria. The French army was defeated, and on October 19, the Allies captured Leipzig. Napoleon retreated across the Rhine and was forced to abdicate a few months later.
1846.- For the first time in the history of surgery, the American doctor John Warren used the ether for major surgeries, removing a tumor in a patient at the General Hospital in Boston (Massachusetts).
1854.- Irish-born English writer Fingal O'Flaherty Wills, better known as Oscar Wilde, was born. He was sentenced to two years in prison for homosexuality, and after his release from prison in 1897 until his death in 1900, he lived in Paris under the name Sebastian Melmot. Works: "Paintings of Dorian Gray", "It's important to be called Enerst", "Ideal Man", "Saloma", "Vera", "The Duchess of Padua" and others.
1886.- The Israeli statesman David Green, known as David Ben Gurion, was born, the leader in the struggle for the creation of Israel and the first prime minister of the Jewish state from 1948 to 1953 and again from 1955 to 1963. As prime minister, he created the Israeli army from various guerrilla groups.
1888.- American writer Eugene Gladstone O'Neill, creator of modern American drama, winner of the 1936 Nobel Prize in Literature, was born. Works: "Behind the Horizon", "Anne Christie", "All Children of God Have Wings", "King Jones", "Second Journey to Europe" and others.
1908.- Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha was born, head of Albania's ruling Labor Party from 1948 until his death in 1985. He supported the policies of the Inform Bureau from 1948 to 1956, as well as the dictatorial conception of Joseph Stalin even after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR, which condemned Stalin's methods. He later became a supporter of Beijing, but also disliked Chinese communism. He completely isolated his country, building a primitive authoritarian system based on the repression and physical elimination of dissidents, but also of collaborators he suspected of endangering his personal power. He was a spokesman for the Greater Albania territorial claims to SFR Yugoslavia.
1921.- Slavcho Stojmenski, national hero of Macedonia, was born in Stip. He died in a fight against the Bulgarian fascist police on August 17, 1943, when a meeting of the CPM District Committee was being held in Stip.
1927.- The German writer Guenter Grass was born, who achieved world success with his first novel. Works: "Local Anesthesia", "Limburg", "Wide Field", "Cat and Mouse", "Flood".
1945.- The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was established in Quebec, Canada, to study the problems of nutrition and agriculture around the world and to recommend national and international measures to improve the nutrition of the population. This date was established in 1979 as World Food Day and has been celebrated since 1982.
1946.- The first people to be hanged in the Third Reich, who were sentenced to death by the International Court of Justice in Nuremberg for war crimes in World War II, were German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Chief of Staff of the German Armed Forces Weldelmah Feldelm. Reich Marshal Hermann Goering, also sentenced to death, committed suicide the day before in a prison cell.
1951.- Dragi Mihajlovski was born in Bitola, a Macedonian short story writer, essayist, literary scientist and translator. Graduated from the Faculty of Philology in Skopje. Doctor of Philological Sciences, Department of English Language and Literature, Professor of Translation Theory and Practice. Member of the Macedonian PEN Center. Member of the Macedonian Writers' Association since 1992. He is the author of the books: "River Street" (short stories, 1981), "John" (short stories, 1990), "Crucified Gods" (essays, 1991), "Jump with a stick" (short stories, 1994), "The Gate of Tripoli" ( short stories, 1999), "Under Babylon - the task of the translator" (PhD, 2000), "Diskantria" (novel) and others. He is a winner of the awards: "Racin's confession" and "Grigor Prlichev". Dragi Mihajlovski owed the Macedonian translated literature and the Macedonian culture in general with his translations of the works of William Shakespeare. Of the thirty-seven plays that are considered to have been written by Shakespeare, Daragi Mihajlovski has so far translated and published in Macedonian in printed and electronic form - fifteen.
1964.- The government of the People's Republic of China announced that the first experimental explosion of a nuclear bomb had taken place in this country. Thus, China, as the fifth country in the world, joined the ranks of nuclear powers.
1965.- From the City Stadium in Skopje, for the first time, the Macedonian Television broadcast the football first league match from the Yugoslav football championship between Vardar and Crvena Zvezda from Belgrade, which ended with a result of 2: 0 for Vardar.
1968.- Moscow and Prague signed an agreement in which Soviet troops, along with units from other Warsaw Pact countries, entered the country on August 21, 1968, and ousted the reformist head of Alexander Dubcek's Communist Party and his government.
1970.- Anwar al-Sadat was elected President of the United Arab Republic after the death of President Abdel Gamal Nasser.
1973.- The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and his North Vietnam negotiating partner Le Duc To.
1978.- Polish Cardinal Carol Wojtyla was elected the 264th head of the Roman Catholic Church, the first pope of non-Italian descent after 456 years. After the election he was named John Paul II.
1982.- Italian opera singer Mario del Monaco, dubbed the "tenor of the era", has died.
1984.- The Anglican Black Bishop of Johannesburg, Desmont Tutu, has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1994.- The first (after independence) elections for Members of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia and for President of the Republic of Macedonia were held in Macedonia. Kiro Gligorov was elected President of the Republic of Macedonia for the second time.
1996.- In Isfahan, Iran, at the Assembly of the Eurasian Federation of Stock Exchanges, the Republic of Macedonia was admitted as an equal member.
1996.- At the stadium in the capital of Guatemala, 78 people were killed in a stampede that occurred after fans tried to break through the stands without tickets to watch the qualifying match for the World Cup.
1997.- Pope John Paul II marked the 20th anniversary of becoming the longest-serving pope in the Roman Catholic Church.
1997.- Academician Boris Nikolayevich Putilov, Doctor of Philological Sciences, longtime research associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences and one of the most famous Slavic scholars - folklorists and Balkanologists in Russia died in St. Petersburg. His scientific thought has a great contribution to Macedonia and the independence of the Macedonians.
1997.- In Skopje, the first issue of the news magazine "Today" was published by NIP "Express - Magna Sken".
1998.- Veroljub Andonovski, a Macedonian journalist and publicist, died in Skopje. He was born in Kumanovo, on January 22, 1938.
2003.- Hungarian boxer Laszlo Pap has died. He was the first boxer to win gold medals three times in a row at the Olympics.
2007.- Macedonian and Balkan music mega-star Tose Proeski died in a car accident on the highway Zagreb - Lipovac, near Nova Gradiska, Croatia. He released the albums "The Son of God" (2000), "Somewhere in the Night" (2001), "If You Look Me in the Eyes" (2003), "If You Look Me in the Eyes" - Serbian version (2003) "Day for Us "(2004)," Dan for Us "- Serbian version (2004)," After you "(2005)," I send you "- Serbian version (2005)," Boжиilak "(2006)," Games without borders "(2007) and" Games without borders "- Croatian version (2007), and he performed a number of foreign hits. Tose was a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador, and was posthumously named an honorary citizen of Macedonia. Tose Proeski was born on January 25, 1981 in Krushevo.
2007.- British actress Deborah Kerr, known for one of the most famous movie kisses with Bert Lancaster in the movie "From Here to Eternity", has died. She was nominated for an Oscar for her starring role in six films, only to finally win an Academy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1994. Movies: "Julius Caesar", "From here to eternity", "Good day grief".