On this day - September 15
1776.- During the American War of Independence, British troops under General William Hugh occupied New York.
1786.- Italian physician and naturalist Luigi Galvani discovered electricity, which after him is later called - galvanic.
1789.- James Fenimore Cooper, an American writer, was born. In the Pentology "Leather Sock" depicts the creation of the first settlements of the American border province, the struggle with the Indians, prairies, forests and lakes. He influenced many European writers of youth and adventure novels. He died in 1851.
1821.- Republic of Costa Rica (Spanish colony from 1509), Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish colony from 1522), Republic of Guatemala (Spanish colony from 1523), Republic of Honduras (Spanish colony from 1524) and Republic of El Salvador (Spanish colony from 1524) declared themselves independent states.
1822.- The French orientalist Jean-François Champollion was the first to decipher the hieroglyphs on a plate found in the Egyptian city of Rashid in 1799. He found that hieroglyphs were not symbolic but phonetic. Champollion is the founder of Egyptology as a science.
1830.- Born Mexican general and statesman Jose de la Cruz Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico from 1877 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911. Taking advantage of his fame in battles with French interventionist troops, he seized power in a military coup in 1876, establishing a dictatorship relying on the United States to allow American and British capital to enter. The great dissatisfaction of the peasants, but also of the bourgeoisie, caused a revolution with which he was overthrown in 1911, after which he emigrated. He died in Paris in 1915.
1852.- Arthur Wellesley Wellington, an English military leader and statesman, died in London. He gained military fame in the fight against Napoleon Bonaparte. He was the first to defeat Napoleon's army at Waterloo in 1815. After the victory, he entered Paris together with the Prussian Field Marshal Blicher. He was born in 1769.
1857.- American statesman William Howard Taft, President of the United States from 1909 to 1913, was born. During his tenure he intervened militarily in Nicaragua, which was then under American occupation from 1912 to 1925 and from 1926 to 1933.
1864.- In an accident, while hunting partridges, English researcher Johnson Hanning Spike died. He was the first European to see the African Lake Victoria in August 1858, claiming it was the source of the Nile. Earlier, in January of that year, he discovered Lake Tanganyika with Richard Burton, who led the expedition. His theory of the source of Africa's largest river was disputed by Barton, who believed that Tanganyika was the source of the Nile. That is why Spike, as the leader of a new expedition in July 1862, managed to reach the place where the Nile originates from Lake Victoria. Spike was struck in the eye by an argument between two researchers scheduled at the Royal Geographical Society in London.
1890.- English writer Agatha Christie, author of a series of detective novels, was born.
1891.- Ivan Alexandrovich Gencharov, a great Russian novelist, died. According to the protagonist of his novel "Oblomov", the term "oblomovshtina" was later coined, which is used for lazy and passive observers. He was born in 1812.
1894.- Born in Paris, Jean Renoir, a French film director, a great French and world filmmaker. He wrote the books "Renoir, My Father" and "My Life and My Movies". He has directed the films "Nana", "Bitch", "Madame Bovary", "Big Illusion", "Marseille" and others. He died in Los Angeles on February 13, 1979.
1904.- King Umberto II of Italy was born, the last monarch in Italy who was on the throne for only one month. He abdicated in June 1946 because the Italians voted for a republic in a referendum.
1916.- At the base of the Soma River in northern France, the British Army used tanks (32 tanks) for the first time in war. It was in World War I against the German army that panic erupted over the use of this new weapon.
1935.- In Nazi Germany, Jews were outlawed, and the swastika became the official symbol of the flag.
1941.- Soviet Prime Minister J.V. Stalin sent a message to British Prime Minister W. Churchill, in which he asked Great Britain to open a second front in the west or to send 25 to 30 divisions to the USSR via Arkhangelsk or Iran.
1945.- The Austrian composer Anton Friedrich Ernst von Webern, one of the most prominent expressionists, died. His music was banned by the Nazis during World War II.
1945.- The Bulgarians rejected the monarchy in a referendum and declared the People's Republic of Bulgaria.
1963.- Slavko Kolar, a Croatian writer, died in Zagreb. He wrote short stories, novels, satirical prose, humor, plays and comedies. Among the works known to him are "Back to Naphthalene", "Seven in the Basement", "Master of his body" and others. He was born in Paleshnik, on December 1, 1891.
1967.- The commander of the Egyptian forces, Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Ameri, committed suicide in the catastrophic six-day Arab-Israeli war in June 1967.
1972.- Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany have established diplomatic relations.
1973.- Sweden's King Gustav VI Adolf, succeeding his nephew Carl XVI Gustav, has died.
1983.- Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin has resigned.
1989.- American writer Robert Penn Warren has died.
1990.- The Association of the World Macedonian Congress was established in Gevgelija, the first and only such institution registered in the whole world, for the cultural, spiritual and economic unification of the Macedonians. Todor Petrov has been elected president. It was registered in Gevgelija, on October 10, 1990.
1993.- The Association of European Student Structures at the University "Ss. Cyril and Methodius".
1995.- The UN Security Council extended sanctions against Yugoslavia for another six months.
1995.- In Skopje, in front of the entrance of the US Liaison Office, a new emblem bearing the inscription reads US Embassy, which formally marked the US mission in Macedonia raising the level of diplomatic relations between Washington and Skopje.
1996.- The leader of the Italian secessionist party "Northern League", Umberto Bossi, declared northern Italy the Federal Republic of Padania, which was strongly condemned by other political forces in the country.
2000.- The most wanted Spanish fugitive, Ignacio Gracia Aregui, who, according to the authorities in Madrid, is the leader of the Basque terrorist group ETA, has been arrested in the French part of the Basque Country.
2001.- President George W. Bush has said for the first time that the United States is "at war", stressing that the leader of the Islamist al-Qaeda terrorist network, Saudi Osama bin Laden, was the mastermind of the terrorist attacks four days earlier in New York and Washington.
2002.- South and North Korea have agreed to begin clearing mines along the border between the two countries.
2004.- Johnny Ramon died in Los Angeles, his real name is John Cumingo, the leading guitarist of the influential American punk rock band "Ramons". He was born in 1949.
2011.- Legendary Czech director Otakar Vavra has died. Wawra, who co-founded the Academy of Performing Arts (FAMU) in Prague with a group of Czech filmmakers in the 50s, made his first film 80 years ago. In June this year, at the International Festival in the Czech city of Zlin, he won the Grand Prix for Outstanding Contribution to World Cinematography. He won his first film award in 1938 at the Venice Biennale, where he starred in three films: The Philosopher's Tale and The Club of the Virgins, which won the prestigious Golden Lion Award and the Virginity. For the film "Golden Queen" he was awarded the Golden Shell Award at the San Sebastian Film Festival, as well as the Golden Head Award at the Acapulco Film Festival. In 1969, he made the great historical spectacle "Witch Hunt", a film about the instructed and false trials and executions of women accused of witchcraft in North Moravia in the 1670s. Otakar Wawra is the author of 82 screenplays and 49 films. His educational side to the Czech film is huge. Among his students are "Oscar winners" Milos Forman and Jiri Menzel, Vera Hitilova, Ewald Skorm and Emir Kusturica.
2017.- American actor Harry Dean Stanton has died at the age of 91. Stanton, who was considered "Best Supporting Actor" in Hollywood, gained fame with his role in the film "Paris - Texas". In his 60-year acting career, Stanton has appeared in over 70 films and about 50 television series. In addition to the one in "Paris - Texas", he had more notable roles in "The Godfather 2", "The Eighth Traveler", "The Last Temptation of Christ", "Wild in the Heart", "Dillinger" and "The Green Beloved".