On this day - October 14
322 BC- In the temple of the god Poseidon, on the Greek island of Calauri, he committed suicide by drinking poison, the greatest orator of ancient Demosthenes. His sermons (called "Philippians") and court speeches are, according to Cicero, a formula for speaking skills. He was born around 380 BC.
1322.- The army of King Robert I of Scotland severely defeated English troops under King Edward II at the Battle of Biland. This led the English monarch in 1328 to reluctantly recognize Scotland's independence.
1806.- Under the command of Napoleon I, French troops defeated the Prussian army and conquered Prussia at the Battle of Jena.
1808.- The French abolished the Dubrovnik Republic, which was created in the 15th century. In 1806 Dubrovnik was occupied by France. Based on a decision of the Vienna Congress, Dubrovnik became part of Austria in 1815. It belonged to the Kingdom of SHS Dubrovnik in 1918, and since 1991 after the disintegration of SFRY Dubrovnik belongs to the Republic of Croatia.
1809.- With the Vienna Peace, Austria was forced to hand over Trieste and the Illyrian province (Dalmatia) to France, Galicia to Poland and Russia, and the Inn area to Bavaria.
1882.- Irish statesman Eamonn Valera was born, the leader of the Sinn Féin party from 1917 to 1926, with two brief breaks as prime minister from 1937 to 1959, and then in 1973 as president of Ireland. In 1923 he was president of the League of Nations.
1890.- Dwight Eisenhower, an American general and politician, was born. During World War II, he was commander of US forces in Europe, then commander of Allied forces in the Mediterranean, leading operations in Sicily, southern Italy, and the Normandy landing. After the war he was commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In 1952 and 1956 he was elected President of the United States. He died on March 28, 1969.
1912.- US President Theodore Roosevelt survived the assassination in Milwaukee. The bullet stopped the thick coat and several pieces of paper he had in his inside pocket.
1913.- The largest mining accident in Britain, at the Glamorgen coal mine in Wales, killed 439 miners.
1919.- Dimitar Mitrev, Macedonian literary critic and essayist, academician, professor at the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje, was born in Dede Agac. As early as 1938, when the Macedonian Literary Circle was formed in Sofia, he was a member of it together with Nikola Vapcarov, Kole Nedelkovski, Gjorgi Abadziev, Anton Popov and other progressive Macedonian writers. He died in Ohrid, on February 24, 1976.
1927.- English actor Roger Moore was born, who mainly starred in action movies and TV series. He replaced Sean Connery in a series of films about the secret agent "007". Movies: "Ivanhoe", "Live and Let Others Die", "The Man with the Golden Gun", "The Spy Who Loved Me", "Just For Your Eyes".
1933.- Germany left the League of Nations and the Geneva Conference on Disarmament.
1939.- More than 800 sailors were killed in the British Royal Oak battleship off the coast of northern Scotland, which was sunk by a German submarine.
1941.- German troops in Serbia committed one of the greatest war crimes in World War II, shooting more than 6.000 Serb civilians in Kraljevo, including women and children.
1941.- In the village of Krupishte, Stip region, in revenge for the lost fight, the German fascists entered the houses with pointed rifles and gathered the men from 15 to 60 years old, shooting at anyone who started to run away. The criminals entered the houses and burned them together with the cattle. 49 people were shot. The same day, the German fascists massacred the population in the Kocani village of Ularci. The village was set on fire and 40 people were shot.
1941.- In the village of Beljakovce, Kumanovo region, the Bulgarian police broke up the group (company) "Karadak" of the Kumanovo BUT partisan detachment. Among others, Boro Menkov, commander, Pero Georgiev - Uncle, political commissar and Bajram Shabani, fighter of that group - the three national heroes of Yugoslavia, from Macedonia, died. Menkov was born in Kumanovo in 1919, Georgiev also in Kumanovo in 1918, and Shabani in the village of Lipkovo, Kumanovo region, in 1920.
1947.- Flying a jet-powered military aircraft under test, US Air Force Captain Charles Jerger became the first man to break through the sound barrier.
1959.- Australian-American film actor Erol Flynn, who often played just heroes in adventure films, has died. Movies: "Captain Blood", "The Adventures of Robin Hood", "Gusar", "Gentleman Dim", "Virginia City", "Roots of Hell".
1963.- The UN General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution to provide assistance for the reconstruction and construction of Skopje, after the earthquake that hit the Macedonian capital on July 26, 1963.
1964.- African-American Martin Luther King, Jr., a black human rights activist, has won the Nobel Peace Prize.
1970.- The typhoon that hit the Philippines killed more than 780 people.
1990.- Leonard Bernstein, famous American conductor and composer, has died in New York. He gained worldwide fame as a conductor of the most famous orchestras and as a composer of the famous musical "Story of the West Side". He was born on August 25, 1918.
1991.- Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, who was then under house arrest for almost two years under the military junta, has won the Nobel Peace Prize.
1993.- A joint statement was signed in New York on the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Macedonia and the People's Republic of China, at the level of ambassadors. The signing was done under the constitutional name - Republic of Macedonia.
1994.- After the Irish Republican Army and the Loyalist paramilitary units, they announced a general cessation of hostilities, creating the basic preconditions for the beginning of the end of the bloody Northern Ireland drama.
1994.- Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and Palestinian Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat shared the Nobel Peace Prize.
1996.- Priof died. Dr. Isidor Papo, a Bosnian Jew by origin, one of the most prominent surgeons of the former SFR Yugoslavia, a member of SANU. He was for many years the head of the Surgical Clinic of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade and for many years the chief surgeon of the former JNA. It should be especially noted that many patients from Macedonia are treated by his department and personally and that he has great merits for the development of surgery in Macedonia. He was born in Ljubishko, near Mostar, in 1913.
1997.- American singer and film actor Harry Lilly "Bing" Crosby has died, a record holder for the number of recorded records, as well as an Oscar winner for the film "Walking on His Way".
1998.- Egyptian Nagib Mahfouz became the first Arab writer to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature.
1998.- Nigerian writer Volle Shoinka, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, has returned to the country after nearly four years of exile, forced by the dictatorial regime of the military junta, which he vehemently opposed.
1999.- Tanzanian statesman Julius Gerrere, a prominent leader of the non-aligned movement, the first president of Tanganyika (modern-day Tanzania) from 1962 to 1985, when he resigned, is a rare example of an African country. He was one of the founders of the Organization of African Unity in 1963.
2000.- In the northern Nigerian city of Kano, at least 200 people were killed in two days of riots in the burning of several churches, mosques and shops.