On this day - October 12

on today's day
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1492.- The famous Italian sailor Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), in the service of Spain, after a two-month voyage, arrived on the Bahamian island of Guanahani, thus discovering America. Columbus set sail this time on three ships: the Santa Maria, the Nina, and the Pinta. During the voyage he discovered Cuba and Haiti, where he left some of his men and returned to Spain. Later, he went on similar trips several more times.

1518.- The German religious reformer Martin Luther rejected the request of the Roman Curia to repent and renounce his beliefs.

1811.- Paraguay has declared independence from Spain and Argentina.

1822.- Brazil gained independence. Until then, this country was a Portuguese colony.

1870.- The most famous American military leader, General Robert Edward Lee, commander of the Northern Virginia Army in the US Civil War from 1861 to 1865, has died. Faced with the incomparably superior army of the North, on April 9, 1865 he capitulated.

1934.- The juvenile Petar II Karadjordjevic was proclaimed King of Yugoslavia, three days after his father, Alexander I Karadjordjevic, was assassinated in Marseilles in an assassination attempt by Macedonian terrorist Vlado Chernozemski.

1942.- At the Battle of the Pacific island of Guadalcanal in World War II, the Americans defeated the Japanese and prevented them from entering Australia.

1960.- During the debate on colonialism at the United Nations General Assembly, Soviet leader Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev took off his shoe and slammed it several times on the table.

1962.- Branko Crvenkovski, former President of the Republic of Macedonia, Prime Minister of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia and longtime leader of SDSM, was born in Sarajevo, FR Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1963 his family returned to live in Skopje. He completed primary and secondary education in Skopje. In 1985 he graduated from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Skopje. Branko Crvenkovski's political career began in 1990 when he became a member of the SDSM Presidency. In 1990, in the first multi-party elections in Macedonia, he was elected a Member of Parliament in the first composition of the Assembly. In April 1991 he was elected president of SDSM. On September 5, 1992, he became the second Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia after its independence from Yugoslavia. At 29, he was the youngest prime minister in Europe at the time. He won a second term as prime minister after the December 1994 elections. After the defeat in the parliamentary elections in 1998, from 1998 to 2002, he was the leader of the opposition in the Macedonian Parliament. Since the start of the military conflict in 2001, the Social Democratic Union has joined the Government of Political Unity, which was formed to end the country's crisis. Crvenkovski, along with then-Prime Minister and VMRO-DPMNE leader Ljubco Georgievski and PDP leaders Imer Imeri and DPA leader Arben Xhaferi, as well as President Boris Trajkovski, are signatories to the Ohrid Framework Agreement. In the parliamentary elections in 2002, SDSM won power again together with the partners from the coalition "For Macedonia Together" and in 2002 again stood for the post of Prime Minister. In the third early presidential elections in the Republic of Macedonia, in 2004, Branko Crvenkovski was elected President of the country. During Crvenkovski's presidency, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia became a candidate country for accession to the European Union. He held the position of President of Macedonia until May 12, 2009. On May 24, 2009 he again headed the Social Democratic Union, and after the June congress of SDSM (2013), the presidency in SDSM was given to Zoran Zaev.

1964.- The Soviet Union launched the Vostok-1 spacecraft with pilot Vladimir Komarov, scientist Konstantin Feoktisov and doctor Boris Yegorov.

1968.- After 190 years of Spanish colonial rule, the African state of Equatorial Guinea gained independence.

1969.- The Soviet Union launched the Soyuz-7 spacecraft with a crew of three, who met with the two crew members of the previously launched Soyuz-6 spacecraft.

1976.- Chinese Prime Minister Hua Guofeng has become the head of the ruling Communist Party.

1984.- A bomb blast by Irish Republican Army terrorists at the Grand Hotel in the English city of Brighton, where the annual Conservatives' conference is being held, has killed five people.

1990.- Islamic terrorists on a motorcycle in Cairo ambushed and killed Egyptian Parliament Speaker Rifat Mahjuba and three of his bodyguards.

1992.- An earthquake in Cairo has killed more than 550 people. The quake's epicenter was near the Pyramids of Giza.

1993.- The Kingdom of Belgium recognized the Republic of Macedonia.

1993.- The People's Republic of China has recognized the Republic of Macedonia.

1995.- At the meeting of the OSCE Standing Committee in Vienna, the Republic of Macedonia became a full member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

1997.- Dr. Nijazi Limanovski, assistant professor at the Institute of Geography at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in Skopje, founder of the Cultural and Scientific Manifestations of the Macedonian Muslims and president of the Association of Ethnologists of Macedonia, died in Skopje. He was born in the village of Rostuse, on June 27, 1941.

1999.- General Pervez Musharraf ousted Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's government in a military coup, dissolved parliament and declared a state of emergency.

2000.- Islamic terrorists in the Yemeni port of Aden with a small boat loaded with explosives hit the American destroyer "Cole" killing 17 and wounding more than 10 American sailors.

2002.- A bomb blast near the Indonesian island of Bali has killed at least 202 people and injured more than 21. Most of the victims were tourists, mostly from Australia, Britain, the United States and France. Germany and Sweden.

2012.- The European Union has won the Nobel Peace Prize. The explanation of the Nobel Committee emphasizes that the EU is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2012, for its merits for the unification of the European continent. The decision to award the Nobel Peace Prize to the EU was taken unanimously by the members of the Committee, chaired by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, Thorbjorn Jagland.