On this day - December 1
- World AIDS Day
- National holiday of Romania
1135.- King Henry I of England, the younger son of William I the Conqueror, dies. During his reign (from 1100), he consolidated royal power, and in 1106 he conquered Normandy and annexed it to England.
1455.- Italian sculptor Lorenzo Giberti, famous for making the doors of the baptistery in Florence, has died. In the competition in 1401, in a strong competition, he was entrusted with the construction of other doors in the church, which he completed in 1424, and from 1425 to 1453 he made the third door, called the "door of paradise", where he solved it in a new way. the problem with space. He also made several sculptures in Florence and Siena, including the relief for the cathedral of Siena.
1516.- Giovanni Bellini, a great Italian painter, the most important of the three brothers (Jacopo, Gentile, Giovanni) died in Rome. He painted compositions and portraits, was a teacher to Georges and Titian and was one of the founders of the Venetian School of Painting in the Italian Renaissance. He was born in 1430.
1603.- William Gilbert, English scientist, physician and physicist, died in London. He was particularly interested in the study of magnesium and electricity and introduced several terms and expressions for magnets and electrical quantities. His classic De Magnette (1600) was the first major scientific work to be published in England. The name "Gilbert" is given to the unit of magnetomotor forces. He was born in 1540.
1640.- Portugal regained its independence after an uprising to overthrow the Spanish government, and two weeks later the Duke of Braganz was crowned King of Portugal under Joao IV. Spain did not recognize the independence of Portugal until 1668.
1813.- Russia, Prussia and Austria agreed to invade France as Napoleon responded vaguely to the peace terms set by the Allies.
1821.- Independence from Spain was also declared by the Dominican Republic, a territory that occupies the eastern part of the Caribbean island of Haiti, then known as Hispaniola.
1825.- Russian Tsar Alexander I Petrovich Romanov died. After his accession to the throne in 1801, a series of liberal reforms began, and during his reign Russia expanded its territory considerably.
1885.- Born in Wickley, France, was born Albert Londres, a French writer and journalist, one of the most famous military reporters. He has collaborated in the newspapers Matinee, The Fifth Journal, Excelsior, Quotidien, The Fifth Parisian and others. He was a reporter from the First Balkan War and the First World War. As a journalist he wrote more than 800 articles from all fields.
1896.- Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, Marshal of the Soviet Union, a prominent military leader in World War II, was born. He led the German offensive in Moscow. Russian (Soviet) troops under his command occupied Berlin in May 1945. He wrote a memoir entitled "Memories and Thoughts". He died in Moscow on June 18, 1974.
1906.- The "Omnija Pate" cinema has opened in Paris, known worldwide as the first hall purpose-built for showing films.
1918.- In the city of Alba Julia, the people of Transylvania, represented by delegations from all over, proclaimed the unification of Transylvania with Romania. This historic act completes the process of national unification of the Romanian people.
1918.- By a decision of the Danish Parliament, Iceland gained independence.
1918.- In Belgrade, Regent Aleksandar Karadjordjevic announced the unification and creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
1934.- Sergei Mironovich Kirov, a member of the Politburo and secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, was assassinated in Leningrad. After Kirov's assassination, Stalin launched a wave of purges and by 1938 had physically liquidated several old revolutionaries, leaders of the October Revolution.
1935.- American film actor and director Allen Stuart Koenigsberg, better known as Woody Allen, the reviver of Hollywood film comedy in the 20s, was born. Movies: "Take the money and run away", "Everything you always wanted to know about sex but did not dare to ask", "Love and War", "Annie Hall", "Manhattan", "Interiors", "The Dream on a summer night. "
1936.- Italian writer Luigi Pirandello, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934, one of the most important playwrights of the 20th century, has died. He wrote 33 plays, collected under the title "Naked Masks". Works: "Stories of a Year", "The late Matthias Pascal", "Her Husband", "Giacomino", "Henry IV", "Six People Are Looking for the Writer".
1943.- The first issue of the newspaper "Bratstvo", an organ of the First Macedonian-Kosovo NOU Brigade, was published in Debarca.
1987.- In Skopje, Andon Dimitrovski-Petko, first fighter and holder of the "Partisan Monument 1941" died. After his release he worked in the internal affairs bodies. He was born in Krushevo, in 1922.
1988.- Benazir Bhutto has become the Prime Minister of Pakistan, as the first woman to head an Islamic country. She was born on June 21, 1953, the daughter of former Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
1989.- Mikhail Gorbachev visited the Vatican as the first Soviet leader and agreed with Pope John Paul II to establish diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the Vatican.
1991.- In a referendum in the Soviet Republic of Ukraine, citizens voted overwhelmingly for independence.
1994.- In Bordeaux, France, at the 21st General Assembly of the World Federation of War Veterans, held from 1 to 6 December, the Union of Fighters of the National Liberation and Anti-Fascist War of Macedonia was accepted as a full member.
1995.- Javier Solana has been elected Secretary General of the Atlantic Alliance. In Brussels, NATO ambassadors reached an agreement to appoint Solana as Willy Klass' successor.
2005.- One of the five top commanders of the international terrorist network Al Qaeda, the Egyptian Abu Hamza Rabi, was killed in North Waziristan, an area in Pakistan near the border with Afghanistan.
2006.- More than a thousand people were killed, about 500 were injured and about 600 are missing in a typhoon that hit the eastern Philippines.